Foot protection  

Depending on the type and severity of the collision, the driver’s lower extremities may be exposed to a considerable risk of injury. To reduce the risk of injury, Volkswagen uses deformation elements specifically in the pedal cluster and foot rests. The end wall deformation occurring in the Euro NCAP offset crash, leads to targeted freedom of movement in the pedal cluster, for instance, from a set level of force. This separates the pedals from the intrusion. They remain mobile and mostly free of force. This reduces the risk of injury to feet and the lower leg.

Image of pedals in the driver’s seat footwell of a VW Scirocco

Fording depth 

The fording depth is the distance between the point that comes into contact with the tyres and the engine’s air intake or air suction system.

See also:
Cross slope
Breakover angle
Climbing power
Ramp angle

Schematic diagram of a VW Touareg’s fording depth

‘Front Assist’ area monitoring system 

The ‘Front Assist’ area monitoring system uses a sensor (radar/laser) to detect critical distance situations and helps reduce the stopping distance. In hazard situations, the system warns the driver through visual and audio signals and a braking jolt. ‘Front Assist’ functions independently of the Adaptive Cruise Control ACC.
‘Front Assist’ reacts to critical proximity situations in two stages: in the first stage, the assist system uses audio and visual signals to warn the driver of vehicles which suddenly decelerate or drive slowly in front and the associated risk of collision. At the same time, the vehicle is ‘prepared’ for emergency braking. The brake pads are applied to the brake discs without slowing down the vehicle. The Hydraulic Brake Assist system is made more responsive.
If the driver does not react to the warning, in the second stage, they are informed of the risk of impact with a single short braking jolt. The brake assist system's responsiveness is also increased further. If the driver then steps on the brake, the full braking power immediately becomes available. If the braking is not strong enough, ‘Front Assist’ increases the brake pressure to the necessary extent to bring the vehicle to a standstill before the obstacle.
Depending on the vehicle, ‘Front Assist’ offers two other functions: In that case, ‘Front Assist’ introduces automatic partial braking itself after the collision warning. This is sufficient to brake the vehicle and win back the driver’s attention. In situations where a collision is unavoidable, the driver is also assisted with an automatic hard brake. ‘Front Assist’ brakes the vehicle as hard as possible to reduce the speed of impact and keep the collision as minimal as possible.
Depending on the vehicle, ‘Front Assist’ also provides assistance at low speeds. If the driver misses an obstacle, ‘Front Assist’ with the City Emergency Braking System brakes the vehicle automatically and reduces impact speed. Ideally, this should help prevent collisions entirely.

Two VW Golf SVs on the road with schematic diagram of the ‘Front Assist’ area monitoring system and Adaptive Cruise Control ACC

Front Cross Traffic Assist

Front Cross Traffic Assist uses radar sensors in the front of the vehicle. They monitor the area in front of the vehicle and can provide a visual and audio warning of detected crosswise traffic on journeys up to 30 km/h.* If another car outside the field of vision comes closer and the driver is moving forward at a speed of up to 10 km/h, emergency braking can be triggered to prevent a collision.

* This is how Front Cross Traffic Assist helps the driver to emerge from complicated exits and enter junctions with poor visibility.

* within the system’s limitations

Schematic diagram of the Front Cross Traffic Assist mechanism

Front-wheel drive  

Today, the front-wheel drive is the most common drive principle in models of car up to the mid-range segment. The drive occurs on the front wheels. The engine, gearbox, final drive and differential are combined in a compact unit. With a front-wheel drive, the vehicle is ‘pulled’ so that there is stability between the drive forces and the vehicle’s inertia force. The front wheels must take on the drive, brake and cornering forces. Appropriate front axle arrangements counteract influences on the steering.

VW Passat saloon viewed in motion from the side

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